Tuesday, October 21, 2014

OU: Techie "ontological engineering"

Calling one's work engineering of existence takes balls.... 


Tutorial on ontological engineering

 Ontological engineering is explained as the successor of knowledgeengineering to give a first context. Another context to understand ontology is semantic web[SW]which requires semantic interoperability among metadata in which an ontology is expected to fill thesemantic gap between metadata. The next topic is typology of ontology followed by FAQ and whatis not an ontology to avoid possible misunderstanding of ontology. Roles of ontology are describedin detail to explain the utility of an ontology.....

 The following are some of the definitions of an ontology.

(1) In philosophy, it means theory of existence. It tries to explain what is being and how the world isconfigured by introducing a system of critical categories to account things and their intrinsicrelations.
(2) From AI point of view, an ontology is defined as “explicit specification of conceptualization”[Gruber] which is widely accepted in AI community. “Conceptualization” here should beinterpreted as “intensional” rather than “extensional” conceptualization contrary to that definedin [Genesereth 87].
(3) From knowledge-based systems point of view, it is defined as “a theory(system) of concepts/vocabulary used as building blocks of an information processing system” by R.Mizoguchi[Mizoguchi 95]. In a context of problem solving, ontologies are divided into twotypes: Task ontology for problem solving process and domain ontology for the domain where thetask is performed.
(4) Another given by Gruber[Gruber]Ontologies are agreements about shared conceptualizations. Shared conceptualizations includeconceptual frameworks for modeling domain knowledge; content-specific protocols forcommunication among inter-operating agents; and agreements about the representation ofparticular domain theories. In the knowledge sharing context, ontologies are specified in the formof definitions of representational vocabulary. A very simple case would be a type hierarchy,specifying classes and their subsumption relationships. Relational database schemata also serveas ontologies by specifying the relations that can exist in some shared database and the integrityconstraints that must hold for them.
(5) A compositional definition is given as follows: An ontology consists of concepts, hierarchical
(is-a) organization of them, relations among them(in addition to is-a and part-of), axioms toformalize the definitions and relations.

PSinger Board Pro: "I'm not really in favour of breaking up businesses if you don't need to."

economist can pay you to help their model ... or someone else can pay you to break it...


telegraph

Mr Muntwyler said any appointment was "up to National Express and its shareholders. I think it's an interesting company."
He stressed: "If I am elected I will not be a candidate of Elliott. They just proposed my name" - a remark reinforced by him saying "I'm not really in favour of breaking up businesses if you don't need to."
National Express will today issue an upbeat trading statement – brought forward from Tuesday to persuade shareholders it does not need a radical change of strategy.

Monday, October 20, 2014

Schopenhauer: Genius? "eminently clear consciousness of things.. pierce the darkness & dullness of ordinary human"

everybody thinks they are smart... most people are not...

Schopenauer

A genius is a man in whose mind the world is presented as an object is presented in a mirror, but with a degree more of clearness and a greater distinction of outline than is attained by ordinary people. It is from him that humanity may look for most instruction; for the deepest insight into the most important matters is to be acquired, not by an observant attention to detail, but by a close study of things as a whole. And if his mind reaches maturity, the instruction he gives will be conveyed now in one form, now in another. Thus genius may be defined as an eminently clear consciousness of things in general, and therefore, also of that which is opposed to them, namely, one’s own self....

the light which he sheds about him may pierce the darkness and dullness of ordinary human consciousness and there produce some good effect

Inequality: Vatican, Reel Sistine for masses v Live for €5,000






ibi

he Vatican has not divulged how much it will earn from the event, but the five-day tour of Italy's capital, arranged by the Porsche Travel Club, costs up to €5,000 a head,

Sunday, October 19, 2014

Stagnation: NY'r v JayZ, Beethoven "oppress his successors from the grave" v Quiz, JayZ or TS Eliot




NY'r

 As a teen-ager, I contemplated becoming a composer; attending a concert at Symphony Hall, in Boston, I remember seeing, with wonder and dismay, the single name “beethoven” emblazoned on the proscenium arch. “Don’t bother,” it seemed to say.advertisementFor this conundrum—an artist almost too great for the good of his art—Beethoven himself bears little responsibility. There is no sign that he intended to oppress his successors from the grave.

Telegraph: Can you tell the difference between rap and TS Eliot?




Startup classes: Sand Hill v Math star, startup classes v need "talent. the feeling of it"




startupclass.samaltman.com


Women in Mathematics:
JBirman

I did finally get my master's degree in physics.  But by then I knew that I didn't have the talent for physics.  I scraped through, but I didn't have the feeling of it.  Again, I felt like they could tell me anything.  I didn't understand what the ground rules were.

and intuition.

Yes, you need some kind of an intuition, and I didn't have it.  The electronics laboratory involved a very precise measure of truth.  I liked that.  But when I got to problems in mechanics, I just didn't understand what you could ignore and what you had to accept as given.  There always seemed to be approximations.  But I never knew which ones were acceptable, and the whole thing was hazy.

Dealer $: F&S, "closemouthed. theory may be that the less [buyers] know about the inner workings of the business the better"




Field & Stream Jan 1985

auto parts business is big, diverse, and tends to be closemouthed, the latter probably because it is a license to print money.  Consumers, of course, pick up the tab, and the theory may be that the less they know about the inner workings of the business the better.